An International Resource Panel thinkpiece, prepared at the request of Argentina, holder of the G20 Presidency in 2018, was presenting to G20 nations at their Resource Efficiency Dialogue held in Iguazu. Intended to serve as scientific input for the discussions, the paper draws upon research by the Panel, including its assessment report entitled “Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications”, and provides a summary of the latest scientific information on resource efficiency, its economic potential and the connections it has with climate change.